R128 (EBU R128)
In August 2010, the EBU published its Loudness Recommendation EBU R128. It tells how broadcasters can measure and normalise audio using Loudness meters instead of Peak Meters (PPMs) only, as has been common practice.
EBU R128 is the result of two years of intense work by the audio experts in the EBU PLOUD Group, led by Florian Camerer (ORF). The Recommendation is accompanied by a Loudness Metering specification (EBU Tech 3341), a Loudness Range descriptor (EBU Tech 3342), Loudness test material (various different sequences) Production Guidelines (EBU Tech 3343) and Distribution Guidelines (EBU Tech 3344). An EBU Technical Review Article describing the fundamental change in audio in broadcasting is also available: On the way to Loudness Nirvana.
Basically EBU R128 recommends to normalize audio at -23 LUFS ±0.5 LU (±1 LU for live programmes), measured with a relative gate at -10 LU. The metering approach can be used with virtually all material. To make sure meters from different manufacturers provide the same reading, EBU Tech 3341 specifies the ‘EBU Mode’, which includes a Momentary (400 ms), Short term (3s) and Integrated (from start to stop) meter. Already more than 60 vendors have reported to support ‘EBU Mode’ in their products.